Advantages of Titanium
in Orthopedic Applications
It is not without good reason that many of our implants are made using medical grade Titanium. In fact, there are many compelling reasons to.
Titanium offers a comprehensive array of benefits for veterinary implants, which collectively contribute to long-term success in veterinary orthopedic surgeries. Here are just some:
Its excellent biocompatibility minimizes adverse immune reactions when implanted into the body, promoting better acceptance and integration with surrounding tissues.
Titanium is chemically inert, meaning it does not react with bodily fluids or tissues when implanted. This inertness minimizes the risk of adverse reactions or inflammation in the body. That, in combination with its corrosion resistance, osseointegration capability, low elastic modulus, and favorable tissue response makes titanium highly biocompatible.
Superior Strength and Durability
Titanium exhibits excellent fatigue resistance making it ideal for implants that must withstand high forces and repeated stresses. This is particularly beneficial for active animals, such as military and police dogs, working dogs, or dogs that engage in strenuous activities or participate in sports or agility competitions. Titanium implants can withstand the forces and impacts associated with running, jumping, and other physical activities.
It has an impressive strength-to-weight ratio, which means that it is strong and durable while also being lightweight. This is advantageous for active dogs, as it allows them to maintain agility and performance without being burdened by heavy implants.
Reduced Risk of Infections
Titanium's inherent properties deter bacterial adhesion, reducing the risk of implant-associated infections. It typically needs to be inoculated with 10 times as many infectious units for an implant-associated infection to develop compared to stainless steel.
Titanium's smooth surface and passive oxide layer discourage the formation of bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that adhere to surfaces and produce a protective matrix, making them resistant to antibiotics and the body's immune response. By preventing biofilm formation, titanium implants are less likely to serve as a reservoir for bacterial growth and infection.
Titanium forms a stable oxide layer on its surface when exposed to oxygen, which protects it from corrosion in the body. This corrosion resistance ensures the longevity of titanium implants and reduces the release of potentially harmful ions into surrounding tissues.
It has the ability to bond directly with bone tissue through a process called osseointegration. When titanium implants are placed in contact with bone, they can form a strong mechanical bond with the surrounding bone tissue, which plays a crucial role in the healing process by promoting implant stability, facilitating load transfer, preventing micro-motion, and stimulating bone remodeling.
Low Elastic Modulus
Titanium has a relatively low elastic modulus, which is similar to that of bone. This helps to minimize stress shielding, a phenomenon where the implant absorbs too much of the load, leading to bone resorption. By closely matching the mechanical properties of bone, titanium implants can reduce the risk of stress shielding and promote better long-term stability.
Lower Allergic Reactions
Titanium generally elicits a minimal inflammatory response from the body compared to other materials. This is attributed to its biologically inert nature and the absence of toxic or allergenic components. As a result, titanium implants are well-tolerated by the body, with fewer instances of adverse reactions or complications.
It maintains a temperature closer to the body's temperature, regardless of external environmental conditions. This property helps to minimize temperature fluctuations of the implant, ensuring that patients are less likely to perceive temperature differences between the implant and surrounding tissues, leading to a more natural and comfortable sensation.
Titanium in Orthopedic Implantation
There are numerous studies, reviews, and researches made about Titanium in its application in medicine, particularly in orthopedic implantation.
Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review
Author: Alfred T. Sidambe
Bioengineering & Health Technologies Group, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, 19 Claremont Crescent, Sheffield S10 2TA, UK
Received 2014 Aug 25; Revised 2014 Oct 5; Accepted 2014 Dec 8.
Biomedical Applications of Titanium Alloys: A Comprehensive Review
Authors: Elia Marin and Alex Lanzutti
1Ceramic Physics Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
2 Department of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
3 Department Polytechnic of Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
4 Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
Submission received: 24 November 2023 / Revised: 15 December 2023 / Accepted: 21 December 2023 / Published: 25 December 2023