TPLO Technique

Studies & References 

Since its inception in 1993 and its subsequent widespread adoption as a treatment for cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) injuries in dogs, TPLO has undergone extensive scrutiny and investigation across various scientific avenues. 


Veterinary Journals and Publications

Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy for Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Canines: Patient Selection and Reported Outcomes (Vet Med (Auckl), 2019)

Authors: Andy Nanda and Eric C. Hans

This study reviewed the literature on TPLO for cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in dogs, finding consistent return to normal limb function with low long-term morbidity risk across various breeds. Despite TPLO's favorable outcomes, treatment selection for CCL rupture should consider patient characteristics, surgeon expertise, and financial factors.

Comparison of tibial plateau angle changes after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy fixation with conventional or locking screw technology (Vet Surg., 2010)

Authors: Amanda L. Conkling, Bennett Fagin, R. Mark Daye

This study aimed to compare the outcomes of locking and conventional screws following TPLO surgery in dogs with CCL rupture. The results showed that the locking screw group had less change in postoperative tibial plateau slope and higher grades of osteotomy healing compared to the conventional screw group, suggesting potential benefits of locking screw fixation in TPLO procedures.

Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and tibial tuberosity advancement - a systematic review (Tierärztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere, 2018)

Authors: Patricia Beer, Barbara Bockstahler, Eva Schnabl-Feichter

This review systematically evaluated literature comparing outcomes and complications of Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) and Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) for treating canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture. The findings suggest that TPLO may offer lower complication rates, improved clinical-functional outcomes, and less progression of osteoarthritis compared to TTA. However, due to limitations in study comparability and evidence strength, further comparative research is needed to establish the superiority of TPLO over TTA conclusively.

Comparison of complications following tibial tuberosity advancement and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in very large and giant dogs 50 kg or more in body weight (VCOT, 2017)

Authors: Eric C Hans, Matthew D Barnhart, Shawn C Kennedy, Steven J Naber

This study aimed to assess and compare major complications in large dogs (≥50 kg) undergoing Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) or Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) for cranial cruciate ligament disease. Incidence of major complications following TTA and TPLO surgery were 19.8% and 27.8%, respectively. Surgical site infection (SSI) was the single most common major complication following both TTA (15.4%) and TPLO (25.9%) surgery. 

Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30° (VCOT, 2017)

Authors: Rebekah Knight, Alan Danielski

This retrospective study examined the long-term complications following Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) in small dogs with Tibial Plateau Angles (TPAs) greater than 30°. Minor complications occurred in 22.7% of cases, a rate comparable to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs. A smaller post-operative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate, while no major complications were identified in the study. 


Experience with LeiLOX TPLO Systems

Dr. Elaine Holmes (DVM, DACVS-SA) says this about the LeiLOX TPLO:

“An intuitive and well contoured system for TPLO”

Dr. Ivan Stoykov has been working in Ukraine for about 5 years and has been using RITA LEIBINGER implants.

Case Description: The patient is a 13 year old Norwich Terrier diagnosed with a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, and received surgical treatment by TPLO. 

“The plates of the LeiLOX System provide the opportunity to insert screws at different angles, which is critical in small patients to prevent the screw from entering the joint cavity. The X-ray shows an example of screw insertion at different angles. The video shows the dog walking 2 weeks after the operation.”

Dr. Jeff Mayo shared his experience with our Titanium TPLO Swing plates: 

“I like using the Titanium Swing TPLO plates because it is a lighter metal, it’s less reactive, the shape of the plate allows better placement of the plate and osteotomy, I can see the osteotomy through the plate on radiographs, and it supports (avoids) the balcony effect.”


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